Jan. 15, 2020
Jan. 13, 2020
The range of applications of canopy cover analysis is truly astounding. Canopy analysis derives its usefulness from the vitality of the canopy. Many methods to measure canopy cover have been developed in the last 80 years to meet various objectives. Not surprisingly, there have been several comparisons of the tools in different parts of the world. A general knowledge of canopy cover and the various methods to measure it are necessary before choosing the right tool.
Canopy cover is the layer formed by the branches and crowns of plants or trees. The cover can be continuous, as in primary forests, or discontinuous - with gaps - as in orchards. Canopies in tropical and temperate forests can be important habitats for many animals and plants.
A dense canopy cover will let little light reach the ground and will lower temperatures. The canopy protects the ground from the force of rainfall and makes wind force more moderate. Thus, habitat conditions on the ground are shaped by the degree of canopy cover.
Forest canopies differ, and so do their effects on the surrounding ecology. It is easy to imagine how the canopy of a broadleaved forest differs from that of a coniferous forest or a rainforest.
Canopy cover is measured as the proportion of a fixed area of the ground covered by tree crowns. The canopy cover will be determined by the tree species, as they have different crown sizes, shapes, and heights.
Tree canopy measurements are important for various reasons:
Figure 1. Soil loss decreases as canopy cover of oats and wheat increases in the Czech Republic (Image credits: Davidovál et al. 2015, DOI: 10.17221/903/2014-PSE).
To find out more about canopy cover, consult the following sources:
Canopy cover measurement is common in many natural sciences, as well as the food production industry. Some examples are:
Figure 2: Map showing tree canopy cover on agricultural land at a global level. Forty-six percent of agricultural land globally has at least 10% tree cover. (Source: Zomer et al. 2009; Image credits: Minang et al. 2013)
Modern instruments are affordable, portable, and handheld, making measurements in the field easy. These are widely used on site by:
There are many methods to measure canopy cover, and, likewise, there are several commercial tools available on the market. Some of the more important ones are described below.
The convex spherical densiometer is a pocket-sized instrument that uses a convex mirror with a grid of 24 squares. Canopy cover is calculated from the number of squares on the mirror filled with vegetation.
The angular densiometer has a convex mirror, a compass, a bubble level, and a fixed eyesight. It produces a clearer image and a more exact estimation of canopy cover than the convex spherical densiometer.
The moosehorn uses 25 dots on a 5 x 5 grid on a transparent screen; the dots covered by canopy are counted through a side aperture to give an estimate of the vertical projection on the canopy.
The canopy-scope is an improvement on the moosehorn and uses the same principle of 25 dots on a 5 x 5 grid. This instrument is affordable, compact, and accurate. It has the advantage of being less prone to user error compared to other tools.
The vertical tube is a 20cm-long brass tube mounted in such a way that it hangs vertically. It is used to measure crown projection but requires many more points of observation within a given area compared to other methods.
Single-point and handheld light sensors estimate the light that comes through the canopy cover. They do, however, need a reference measurement under an open and clear sky. The disadvantage of this method is that it measures only light transmittance.
Hemispherical photography (HP) and digital analysis uses the fisheye lens approach and produces the most accurate measurements. It can be used for estimating canopy cover, light transmittance, leaf area index and photosynthetically active radiation. It is suitable for tree level measurements of crown architecture and dimensions, and density. These estimates are scalable, as they are related to stand level canopy cover.
In all the above methods, except HP, the resolution decreases with canopy cover over 30%.
Our in-house example of hemispherical photography measurement is the CI-110 Plant Canopy Imager which calculates leaf area index (LAI) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) levels. Using these two indices, the canopy cover is calculated.
The LAI is estimated by a 150 fisheye image of the canopy. The non-destructive method Gap Fraction Method measures the area of sky not visible due to canopy cover utilizing a classification system of 0-1. Here, 0 means the canopy cover has no gaps, while 1 means there is no canopy above, and the sky is fully visible.
Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR), which is the part of the visible light used by plants for photosynthesis, lies in the wavelength range of 400-700 nm. The CI-110 finds out the wavelength of the light filtering through the canopy.
The CI-110 is versatile, as it needs no above canopy reference measurements and is suitable for trees, shrubs and other low plants. A GPS connected to four satellites and an internal compass allow time series measurements at a single location.
The best time and weather conditions for canopy cover estimation will depend on the objective of the study, as well as the instrument being used.
Rapid technological development has been going hand in hand with the growing applications of canopy cover estimation. Tools from CID Bioscience are convenient and user-friendly. They combine light transmittance and canopy cover data to give high accurate results suitable for many applications in several disciplines. The ability to store large amounts of data and transfer it easily to computers gives the CI-110 an advantage over other instruments used for canopy analysis.
Science Writer, CID Bio-Science
Ph.D. Ecology and Environmental Science, B.Sc Agriculture
Calder, I., Hofer, T., Vermont S., and Warren, P. Towards a new understanding of forests and water. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/a1598e/a1598e02.htm
Canopy. Retrieved from https://www.maximumyield.com/definition/899/canopy
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McIntosh, A. C.S., Gray, A. N., and Garman, S. L. (2012). Estimating canopy cover from standard forest inventory measurements in western Oregon. Forest Science, 58: 154-167.; http://dx.doi.org/10.5849/forsci.09-127
Minang, P. A, Bernard, F., Van Noordwijk, M., & Kahurani, E. (2013). Agroforestry in REDD+: Opportunities and Challenges. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/258926411_Agroforestry_in_REDD_Opportunities_and_Challenges
Moffett, M.W. (2000). What's up? A critical look at the basic terms of canopy biology. Biotropica 32:569-596. https://bioone.org/journals/biotropica/volume-32/issue-4/0006-3606(2000)032%5b0569%3aWSUACL%5d2.0.CO%3b2/Whats-Up-A-Critical-Look-at-the-Basic-Terms-of/10.1646/0006-3606(2000)032[0569:WSUACL]2.0.CO;2.short
Why is canopy cover important? Retrieved from http://vitalsignsme.org/help/why-canopy-cover-important
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