Invisible Signals 2024: How To Use Plant Spectroscopy To Reveal Disease & Enhance Plant Health

Hunter Weber

May 15, 2024 at 6:35 pm | Updated May 23, 2024 at 4:50 pm | 37 min read

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Video Description

Did you miss our exclusive webinar on the latest advancements in Leaf Spectroscopy for 2024 featuring the Spectravue Leaf Spectrometer?

Don’t worry. You can watch the full recording here!

In this webinar, we covered:

  • Impact on Plant Health: Insights into how leaf spectroscopy can enhance plant health assessment.
  • Advanced Applications: An in-depth look at the technical capabilities and applications of the Spectravue CI-710s.
  • Expert Insights: Real-world success stories and expert tips to maximize the utility of the CI-710s.

Optimize your approach to plant health analysis and boost agricultural productivity through the transformative power of leaf spectroscopy.

Watch the recording to discover the full potential of leaf spectroscopy!

 

Video Transcription

Today we’re going to  be talking to you about plant spectroscopy
specifically the uses the applications the  types of devices that you might encounter and
uh diving in a little bit more specifically about  our CI 710s Spectra viw Leaf spectrometer before
we get started Susie’s already posted this in  the chat Susie is our host for today she is our
distributor manager um she’s going to be the one  moderating the chat and the Q&A but uh please if
you have any technical difficulties if I drop  out you can’t hear me or if there’s something   going wrong with the PowerPoint please uh let  us know in the chat but for any questions that
you have that pertain to the actual content of  the webinar questions about spectroscopy or the
Spectra viw device uh please put those questions  in the Q&A function uh and that way I will be
able to see them at the end of the webinar and I  will be able to answer those questions and address them for those of you who aren’t familiar with  who I am my name is Galen I am the director of
applied science here at CID bioscience I’ve  been with the company for five years now my
background is in biochemistry and food science  uh I have a lot of experience in agriculture
doing quality and safety assessment um in  the agriculture in the food and the Cannabis Industries so on today’s agenda we’re going  to be talking about just generically what Leaf
spectroscopy is the technology behind it and then  I’ll go into a little bit more of the applications
and the technical specifications of our CI 710s  Spectra view leaf spectrometer after that I’ll
give you three examples of real world use cases  of how this technology has been implemented to   improve operations uh and also help with things  like disease detection and other things like that
which we’ll get into later and at the very end  I’ll answer any questions that you might have   about just generically the application of leaf  spectroscopy or our device the 710s Spectra viw
specifically so what is leaf spectroscopy so  Leaf spectroscopy is the study of the spectral
properties of leaves to assess their health  composition and physiological responses to
environmental factors now in this webinar we’re  going to be focusing on visible near infrared
spectroscopy so this is light in the visible  and the near infrared spectrums typically from
400 to 2500 nanometers this is a vibrational  spectroscopy approach so what we’re doing is
we’re Shining Light into Leaf tissue and that  light is then causing vibrations in molecular
bonds typically in O bonds NH bonds CH bonds  and those vibrations cause uh specific spectral
signatures to be achieved whether you’re doing  reflectance based spectroscopy transmittance
based spectroscopy absorbance diffuse reflectance  or interactance as it sometimes called as well um
and fluorescence methods uh all those are  different types of optical setups uh that
are commonly used in spectroscopy the most  common being reflectance uh So reflectance
based spectroscopy is typically seen in  things like multispectral cameras that
are mounted on uavs or satellite imagery um and  then hyperspectral Imaging is another technology
that you might come across that is a little bit  more advanced and that’s actually giving you a 2D   image as well as the full resolution Spectra  so what we’re going to be focusing on today
like I said is visible near infrared and  specifically handheld tools like the CI   710s Spectra view so this is a full resolution  spectrometer that’ll give you all the spectral
information uh in the visible and shortwave near  infrared wavelength ranges and with that data
there’s a lot we can do as you’ll see in a little  bit and so this is a point of contact tool it’s a
very small portable tool that you will be using  out in the field or in a greenhouse to collect
data on a smaller scale than you would with a  multispectral uh UAV setup or with satellite
imagery so some typical applications that we  see with using a handheld spectrometer like the
Spectra view are are applications in the Realms  of phenotyping so if you’re actually looking for
uh tracking any kind of changes in phenological  phases identification of plants or even things
like if you are doing plant breeding and you  are looking for specific phenotypic traits
that you are are uh uh desirable then you want  to actually measure those traits specifically
and uh select for those traits uh this is a great  instrument for uh performing those kinds of tasks
uh the one of the most common that we see is  things like characterizing stress response so
when you’re tracking changes in nutrients and  pigments that are caused by any kind of abiotic
or biotic stressors so if you are uh looking  at you know C uh impacts of climate change
or the impacts of certain types of fertilizer or  pesticides or just you know salty soil conditions
or any kind of abiotic or biotic stressor  and you want to know how that’s impacting   the health of your plants then this instrument  uh and spectroscopy in general is a great tool
for looking at those stress responses this also  kind of works in the opposite direction where if   you’re uh a someone like a Someone Who develops  fertilizers for example and wants to basically
demonstrate that this fertilizer is causing uh  increased plant health or robustness then that
is something you can use this instrument  for as well another application would be   early disease detection and this is kind of a  newer one that has been getting a lot of more
traction in the research communities recently  and so typically when you’re looking at disease
you are only seeing the symptoms appear visually  and by that point it’s too late and so having
tools that can you can use to actually observe  biochemical and physical chemical changes in plant
tissues before you see any kind of visual symptoms  is a great tool to have in your toolbox in order
to identify disease before it gets to to the  point where it’s too late and you can Implement
any kind of mitigation strategies and then another  great application for this kind of tool for this
handheld spectroscopy is ground truthing so you  know you can actually use this in tandem with
UAV or drone uh Imaging multispectral Imaging or  satellite images to go out and ground truth so
you go out with a higher resolution spectrometer  like the CI 710s and you take samples throughout
your field where you already have taking taken  your drone images or your satellite images for
your ndvi or some other vegetation index and  you can actually see and compare um and either
calibrate your images to those ground truths or  just to validate that your uh UAV drone work is
accurate um that your vegetation indices that  you’re measuring are um are giving you correct
results so kind of going off that some common  use cases that you might encounter with uh using
spectroscopy uh so plant stress measurements  are one of the biggest ones and I mentioned
that earlier in the last slide but with the c710  S what we’ve done is we have actually built in
uh over 40 different vegetation indices and so  with vegetation indices what you are typically
doing is you’re measuring either some kind of  ratio of a certain wavelength of light versus
another wavelength of light and typically they  are at wavelengths where different compounds will
typically show increased responses so chlorophyll  a Chlorophyll B beta carotene things like that
so um plant stress what you can do is actually  look and see visually with the Spectra when your
plants are stressed using an already pre-made  index like the ndvi which is a greenness index
the uh photochemical reflectance index or the  nitrogen balance index which is an index that
kind of gives a more robust idea of what’s going  on with the nitrogen status of the plant you can
also create your own index that you might have  to might have discovered works even better for
a specific species of plant that you’re working  with uh in order to monitor that that plant’s
health and so being able to actually go and see  um and it’s very easy to see you know visually
sometimes with sessing leaves um but being able  to see it on a uh plant where you aren’t getting
that kind of visual representation uh of what’s  going on as far as stress is concerned this is
a great tool to see what where that stress  is happening inside the leaf tissue as far
as phytochemicals are concerned uh as I already  mentioned there you can easily observe changes in
chlorophyll carotenoids an toyins and many other  phytochemicals uh using the raw Spectra output
or the actual indices as I just mentioned so there  are already indices for catenoid reflectance index
an thein reflectance index chlorophyll indices  just general greenness indices so there’s tons of
other indices that researchers have come up with  to look at the levels of these different specific   phytochemicals and so if you are interested  in seeing you know the specific response of
of each of these particular chemicals inside the  plant then you can also do that as well and then
another use case which is uh a little bit more  recent with the advancements and chemometrics and   things like that uh are nutrient modeling so you  can actually go and create from the raw Spectra
and analytical reference values from a laboratory  you can create these quantitative models that will
actually be able to directly quantify nutrient  content in leaf tissue without having to do any
sort of destructive analysis so it’s a great tool  to use it does require a lot of extra uh work up
front to be able to build the model itself but  once you have that then then you then have a tool
that you can take out into the field and you can  measure your nitrogen phosphorus potassium levels
other nutrients calcium magnesium um you can  measure those in the leaf tissue without having
to take them into the lab and so it’s a easy and  then at that point you can actually monitor your   plants over time so the non-destructive nature of  uh of spectroscopy allows for increased sampling
so you can go out and take lots of samples because  it’s a very rapid method but you can also observe
the same plants over time and see changes in  those plants based on different treatments or   different uh environmental conditions you  can observe how the changes in that plant
are happening uh on a chemical level which is a  very awesome uh uh and great tool to have in your
toolbox diving in a little bit in the Spectra  view itself I just wanted to point out some
features I’ve already kind of mentioned a few of  these but with this device this handheld device
it is a single instrument that you can use to  both capture and analyze your data so you don’t
have to actually export the data in order to  get your results you can visualize them all on
the screen both the Spectra itself as well as the  values for any calculated vegetation indices it’s
a very easy and intuitive to use instrument  as I mentioned we already have more than 40   built-in vegetation indices uh those indices are  commonly used across uh many different Industries
uh with a lot of researchers having done previous  research for them with those indices we also like
to include any sort of references that might be  relevant as far as where we got the index from
as well as a little extra information about you  know the normal typical ranges for those indices
and uh things like that so when you actually go  to look at your index list that’s in your device
you can pull up all that information there on  the device in the field uh the device as well
I mentioned that reflectance is the most popular  I guess I would say or most widely used form of
spectroscopy right now in the in the agriculture  sector but this device is able to do reflectance
absorbance and transmittance measurements  all simultaneously so basically what uh uh
is happening is that there’s a light source in  the both the top part of the clamp um as well
as the uh bottom part and so what you can do  is you actually can illuminate the leaf from
two different sides and we can detect light  that’s traveling all the way through the leaf
lights light that’s being directly reflected  Off The Leaf or light that is being absorbed   within the leaf um so that’s a great feature to  have because having access to all those different
Spectra will allow you to then utilize whichever  form of Spectra is going to be the best for if
you’re modeling disease or if you’re modeling  nutrients things like that uh also additionally
some vegetation indices do require transmittance  as opposed to reflectant and so you can actually
calculate those transmittance-based indices  using this device and if you come up with your
own indices that are transmittance based then you  can absolutely do that the uh it’s very intuitive
in the fact that all calculations all the Spectra  everything can be uh exported via USB or Wi-Fi so
if you have some sort of uh already in place  data structure where you want to transmit all   of your data to where it can then be processed  um then you can easily do that via Wi-Fi um but
everything’s also uh able to be stored locally on  a USB drive uh directly on the device and then as
I mentioned we do have the ability to use all  the spectral data to perform some any sort of
advanced chemometric functionalities like PLS  modeling or even like neural network modeling
um or building your own custom indices so it’s a  really open-ended tool that also still has a lot
of built-in features so it’s a ready to use out  of the box tool if you just want to use it for   vegetation indices but it’s also very open-ended  for researchers that want to do a little more
exploration as far as specifications are concerned  uh so we are the device is essentially like a
tablet uh where it has a 7inch touchscreen display  it can be operated at any conditions out in the
field essentially from -10 to uh to 50° C out in  the field when you’re operating it um and and 0 to
90% condensing humidity there is a minimum Leaf  size requirement so we do have a 20 by 20 mm uh
window that we are Optical window that is where  we are measuring all that light transmittance and
reflectance so that you need to ensure that that  window is completely covered by Leaf tissue so if
you have smaller leaves like Blades of grass or  even like Conifer needles that you were hoping
to study then all you would have to do is make  sure that you are using multiple of those leaves
in order to cover the entirety of that window  when you’re performing measurements um so you   wouldn’t be able to do individual needles  or individual Blades of grass if they are
smaller than 20 millimeters in width uh I already  mentioned that it does all three modes reflectance
transmittance and absorbance the spectral range  is from 360 to 1100 nmet so we get visible all
through the short wave near infrared the signal  the noise r ratio is 330 to1 at full signal and
the resolution is 2.4 nanm and uh as far as the  battery life is concerned approximately 3 to
four hours in its current configuration if you’re  using it um heavily and so uh if you are you know
only using it very sparingly your batteries will  last a little bit longer but this is a estimation   with you know pretty rigorous use uh is about  3 to four hours um you can also program it to
either take measurements uh on on an automatic  mode where if you’re observing the same plant
and you want to get measurements over a certain  time period say you’re doing some kind of light   studies or something like that um you can uh  have it uh uh basically take measurements over
a certain period of time automatically or in  the most normal uh kind of typical mode it’s
just a manual measurement so you just prompt the  instrument to measure every time you want to take
a measurement um this is just kind of like a a  30,000 foot view of the specif spe ifications so
if you want more indepth specifications you can  visit our product page on our website and Susie
will post that link in the chat for you guys so  you can actually click it since you won’t be able   to interact with the PowerPoint through Zoom but  um if you want to see more of our specifications
I would recommend uh checking that out and uh if  you have any questions you can throw them in the Q&A so let’s just jump right into some  real world use cases so this is where uh
I guess people probably have the most interest in  how this instrument is being used so the first one
is uh a little bit maybe more unconventional than  what most people might think but in this case what
we did was we actually utilized the device to  help model moisture uh content in baby spinach
uh in order to help predict shelf life and so we  actually went out and we did this uh experiment
inhouse we went out and we bought store-bought uh  packaged organic baby spinach and we stored it in
typical storage conditions in the refrigerator uh  refrigerated conditions also in non-refrigerated   conditions um and we acquired spectral data so we  used the Spectra View and actually we used three
different devices to do this data collection and  we would scan the spinach leaves and then we would
take those same spinach leaves that we scanned  and then we would destructively analyze them for   moisture content in the laboratory so we would  put them in a four stair oven um and we would
basically gravimetrically calculate how much  weight was lost due to moisture loss um after
they were fully dried and so we would combine  those two data sets then the spectral data and the
moisture data from the laboratory we combine those  data sets into one database and then we build a
model that predicts then going forward whether or  not every time I take a scan how much moisture is
in those spinach leaves and so what I was showing  you in the graph below is a validation graph and
so we actually took this model and we then after  we built it we went and we collected independent
data scans from a new set of uh packaged baby  spinach and we scanned all that we got our
predictions which are on the uh y AIS and then  we went with those same leaves and we once again
destructively analyzed them in the laboratory to  get our analytical or our reference values and
we compared how our model predicted versus what  the analytical or destructive method was giving
us and we got a really good correlation of 0.95  the model predicted very well um because we are
using that near infrared range to model moisture  content uh near infrared spectroscopy is a great
tool for monitoring moisture content um in tissues  especially plant tissues so this model worked out
very well so it could e easily be used in a lot  of these kinds of applications where say it’s
fresh cut flowers or leafy greens or any of these  industries where you want to you know improve your
shelf life so you can have product on the shelves  for longer this is a great tool that you could   use to model those uh shelf lives and be able to  tell you and inform you in a non-destructive way
so you wouldn’t actually have to lose product  after building the model non-destructive way   tell you that this product is going to last you  know for another couple weeks or this product is
going to go bad tomorrow um so that’s a really  interesting use case I thought for this device
that might be a little bit unconventional  um when thinking about spectroscopy in the a
sector a little bit more of a common use case but  still kind of more on the I guess Cutting Edge I
would say of things is a study from 2019 in which  uh this group uh was actually modeling nutrients
in um eucalyptus leaves and so they were able  to use this spectrometer specifically to create
these indices that could directly quantify vital  plant nutrients so with nitrogen potassium and
phosphorus they had pretty good uh prediction  abilities but then they also found that in some   cases for some nutrients this wasn’t able to  predict nearly as well so things like um the
Magnesium that model that they the uh index that  they created wasn’t nearly predicting as well as
they wanted to the zinc and the iron wasn’t  predicting as well so it’s really going to   be dependent on the type of leaf that you’re  measuring the type of tissue how thick it is
how thin it is is it waxy on the outside is it  not waxy um all those things are going to kind
of impact the ability of the models to predict  really well for these different analytes so um
but with the nitrogen phosphorus and potassium  those are all really important uh macronutrients
that we can now now be confident in modeling with  the device so if you wanted to have a device to
take out into your corn field or your soy field or  wherever to measure the actual nutrient status of
those plants without having to take samples  into the lab if you wanted to get a better   representative idea of what’s going on in that  field so you could take tons more samples feel
a little bit better about your sub sampling plan  then this is the technology that could enable you   to do that so really cool application here um back  in 2019 from this group um and they have continued
off this research um for other Publications  if you want to check out this publication   or others from the author um Susie will  post a link to this specific publication
but then you can just look up  the authors on Research gate or   wherever if you wanted to see what else  they’ve been working on but really cool
publication and then one other big one that  I wanted to talk about this last real world
use case here is modeling disease and so as  I mentioned earlier disease uh is something
that we typically only see when it becomes  a visual problem when we can actually see   it with our human eyes um but we want to be  able to and we need to be able to identify
that disease uh occurring before it shows  any signs of visual symptoms so what this
group actually did is utilized spectral data and  machine learning to diagnose diseases in cassava
plants and they were able to get this model  to predict disease several weeks prior to the
appearance of physical or visual symptoms and so  this has a lot of far-reaching implic ations for
the industry because especially for plants like  um Citrus right Citrus Greening disease being
able to identify citrus scening disease way  before it’s even uh visually possible to see
those symptoms um that’s a very important tool  to be able to have um and so any kind of other
blights or even pests or things like that being  able to see all that before it becomes a actual
problem for you and your field and your orchard  or or whatever um then this is a great tool to
be able to to use for that and so combining the  power of the spectroscopy with machine learning
and AI um is going to be a great tool going in  the future for doing things like this for disease
modeling and what I wanted to finish and wrap  up this presentation on was just some tips and
tricks so anyone that might already own one of  these um uh or if you’re interested in buying
one I just have some uh advice I guess for how  you actually use this instrument um and so we’re
going to start off with saying that um something  that might not be as uh I guess well known uh it’s
in the user manual but I just want to reiterate  this the instrument needs to be calibrated every
time it is power cycled so if you turn the  instrument off and you turn it back on then
before you start taking measurements again even  if you accidentally turned it off in the field   if you turn it back on and you’ve power cycled  it you need to rec calibrate the calibration
process takes legitimately 10 seconds you just  use the dark and light calibration standards
that are available in the package that we send  you and you slide those on and in the menu the
calibration menu it’ll guide you exactly step by  step what to do 10 seconds later your instrument
will be calibrated and ready to go so please make  sure you’re doing this otherwise you’re going to
see drift in your Spectra and that upwards or  down downwards drift can cause the vegetation
indices to predict differently and then you can’t  compare side by side anymore which is the biggest
power of this tool is to be able to compare over  time compare across treatments so if you can’t if
you don’t calibrate you can’t reliably compare  those treatments against one another so please
make sure you’re always calibrating the instrument  um my other set of advice is this is just uh might
be intuitive to some people but always carry  an extra set of charged batteries with you   um the device will come with two sets of batteries  always have that second set charged and on you
just in case the instrument gets low battery  and you need to change out and you’re in the   middle of your data collection in the middle  of the field um you don’t want to have to go
back and wait and then carry on your experiment  the next day or or anything like that so just   always have that extra set of charg batteries  with you uh the last or not the last thing but
um I would highly recommend is always performing  measurements in absorbance mode this will increase
the measurement time per measurement but very  very minimally but what this will allow you to
do is have all three types of Spectra for every  single measurement you do and just having that
even though you might not think you’re going to  use it at this time having that data uh in your
back pocket is going to be invaluable for any  work you might want to do in the future if you   go back to look at that data set and you decide  you want to try doing some modeling then yet you
at least have all those different spectral data  sets to choose from as opposed to leaving it
just in reflectance mode for just your vegetation  indices or just in transmittance mode this will
allow you to actually have all that all three of  those spectral data sets in your back pocket for
later use um even if you don’t think you’re going  to use it right now so it’ll increase scan time   like I said maybe by one or two seconds um per  scan but uh it’s worth it for the extra time um
unless you are in an absolute absolute time crunch  and you really need that extra you know couple of   minutes time saving from your sampling so um I  would recommend always leaving the instrument in
absorbance mode um another thing that I think uh  is maybe lost on some people is that this device
has a pretty powerful capability of being able to  back calculate indices so say you went out into
the field and you took some measurements and you  only had the ndvi loaded but but you get back from
taking all your measurements out in the field that  day you come back and you realize oh I actually
wanted to calculate a couple of other indices as  well I’m probably going to have to go do that in
Excel now manually or something like that well  actually if all you have to do on the device after
you’ve taken all those measurements is go and load  those indices and it’ll back calculate all the
measurements that you took it’ll it’ll calculate  the indices for all those measurements and then   when you export your data all those measurements  for those indices will also be exported so you
don’t have to do all that manual work afterwards  if you forget to load some indices just make sure
you load them before you export the data um which  is a really nice feature so uh it’s you know if
for those of us with forgetful Minds then it can  be a really helpful feature for us the util oh the
other thing would be to utilize the tag feature so  we have seen this in a lot of other Industries and
a lot of other um uh I guess non-ag non Hardware  related Tech Industries where tags are kind of
the thing right using a hashtag and then and then  having some sort of metadata associated with it
but using that tag feature will help you keep that  data organized so when you’re out in the field and   you want to keep your data organized I highly  encourage you to use that tag feature in order
to make sure that when you export that data you  know what everything is you don’t have to have all   sorts of extra uh organizational systems in place  or anything like that that if you just use that
tag feature you can even uh on the device have it  prompt you automatically with every measurement to
insert a tag so even if that tag is something as  simple as saying like P1 for plot one or something
like that then at least that’s some kind of or  extra organization to go into your measurements
while you will have always have the date and time  stamp you’ll always have the GPS coordinates with   every measurement that you take you still having  that little bit of extra medic data is going to
help go a long ways with helping you keep your  data organized at the end of the day so I highly
recommend using that um and my last piece of  advice is to not perform measurements when the
batter is indicating low you can do other sorts  of manipulations on the device like exporting data
selecting data that you want to export uh adding  indices if you wanted to that’s all fine but
trying to perform measurements when the battery  is indicating low is going to result in some uh I
guess for lack of better term wonky data because  when the battery is low it’s the lamp itself is
not going to get the power supply that it needs in  order to perform those measurements um and so the
lamp will be fluctuating in power and so that’ll  cause the Spectra to be to be a little bit off
and that’ll cause the measurements the vegetation  indices to be off so if your um device prompts you
with a low battery warning then that is your  signal to stop using it to collect scans to
replace replace those batteries to you know wrap  up whatever you’re doing on the device replace   your batteries and then then you can continue to  take scans after you’ve calibrated a device so
um just please yeah make sure that you’re not uh  taking measurements when the battery is low um and
expecting that it is operating in the same way  as if the batteries were fully charged or even   halfway charged so those are all my tips uh and  and just wanted to give you guys this brief run
through of of the different applications that  you can encounter using this uh kind of device
spectroscopy is a really powerful tool it’s a  very powerful tool um but you does require some
understanding of how it works especially if you’re  trying to do any sort of modeling if you do have
questions about modeling or you want some advice  on modeling or input we have created actually an
entire webinar series on chemometrics and modeling  using spectroscopy that might be useful to you to
to watch um but we’re also always available to  answer questions on this webinar itself but also
afterwards if you want to email us with questions  about using spectroscopy to model um then please
reach out to us we’re happy to provide any insight  um or guidance that that you could possibly uh
need so uh this kind of concludes the me talking  exclusively portion of this webinar and uh I hope
you guys learned a little bit about spectroscopy  about the applications of the CI 710s Spectra view
Leaf spectrometer specifically um and learned a  little bit about how to use the device and what
it’s capable of um if you have interest in  getting pricing um Susie will post a link to
that in the chat um you can follow that link to  uh find more information uh request pricing and
just uh generally uh if you have you know need for  the brochure or other sorts of materials to show
any of the other teammates um we can send that  to you as well if you want to stay updated with
what we’re doing uh then please uh go ahead and  follow us on Twitter or any other socials uh we’re
on LinkedIn as well um our website uh is always  being updated with new newsletters if you’re not
on our email list and you’d like to receive our  newsletters we always have great content from our   newsletters um really cool Cutting Edge research  happening in the Agriculture and plant research
Fields um so if you want want that you can sign up  for that on our website as well um and if you have
other questions you can always feel free to email  us or call us and we’re happy to answer whatever   questions you have so thank you for joining us  today and uh I will go ahead and open up the
Q&A function here and we will go ahead and start  with the very first one on the list so the first
question is in India land Holdings are small 1  acre to 5 acre remote sensing spectr M roscopy
does not work what is the affordable solution so  the remote sensing referring to the more like UAV
work um so if you have small fields or small  land Holdings then a portable solution like
the CI 710s is a great solution for you because it  is a uh portable device you know relatively cheap
compared to the operational costs of doing UAV  work um and all the analysis is directly on the
device so when you export the data you don’t have  any extra necess necessarily uh an analysis to do
all the actual data is already been processed so  if you uh are interested in using spectroscopy
but feel like you don’t have the large enough  land to justify using remote sensing then um a
portable solution like the CI 710s Spectra view  is definitely a great solution for you um the
next question is can it be used under tree canopy  and how can one do that so yes so actually uh f
you um look at the images from earlier in the  slide and I can actually go back and maybe on
my slides here and maybe show an the actual image  of the device here so if you look at the device
over here on the left um this actually is a leaf  clamp and so what that is going to do is create a
closed environment so you actually are clamping  the leaf in between the uh the actual arm there
that silver arm and the the top of the device  itself where the optical window is and so the
lamp that’s in that arm and then the detector and  lamp that are in the actual bottom of the device
there um will both be able to penetrate light  through there in a completely closed environment
so there’s no light going to be seeping in or  anything like that even with thick leaves even   if you were doing something that with a really  thick Leaf you’re still going to have that closed
environment if as long as that leaf is covering  that entire Optical window so external lighting   conditions have will have no influence on the  ual measurements themselves so you can use it
under tree canopies in open field conditions in  a greenhouse with artificial lighting whatever
uh incomplete Darkness if you really wanted  to um uh then all those situations are going
to uh yield the same results as far as getting  good accurate spectrum because it’s a closed
system um the next question is can this test  whether a crop is organic or not that’s a great
question so I have not seen anyone use this  in a uh in a format where they’re actually
modeling any sort of like pesticide residuals or  anything like that um uh certainly it potentially
could be used that way but I don’t know  if anyone that has used it that way so I   can’t say whether or not 100% it would work  theoretically it could possibly work but um
practically we just don’t know I don’t know  if anyone that’s used it for that application specifically um does the calibration drastically  impact the data or will it just be better to do
that so the calibration does drastic I guess  drastically is a is a relative term but it
does significantly impact the data if you do  not calibrate uh in between and your spectral
Baseline starts to shift um and over time it’ll  just continue and continue and continue to shift
um you know if you’re taking basically if you’re  doing comparison study let’s say and you’re over   the course of two months and you are you only  calibrate the first time you use it and then
you don’t calibrate any time after that if  you actually looked at your Spectra on the   last day versus the first day from your control  plants then you will see significant differences
in where they are at in the height you know  basically height-wise or bias wise in that
Spectra uh graph and so that alone will cause  artificial inflation or uh uh underprediction
of those vegetation indices um so yes uh be making  sure that you’re calibrating is definitely of the
utmost importance um if you uh for instance I  guess have this device already and you have an
instance where you forgot to calibrate or you  didn’t calibrate um and you need to be able to
recover that data there are potentially ways  for us to recover that data and so um if that
is a is the case you can always reach out to  us and see if that is something that we can   help you with but um it’s just best to remember  to calibrate every time that instrument power
cycled uh the next question is has the  Spectra view been used in viticulture
are there interesting applications for it in this  field thank you so the Spectra view device itself
I don’t know of anyone that’s using it yet in vid  culture but spectroscopy in general is being used
uh extensively in viticulture um more specifically  on the grape side of things um but if you uh are
actually looking to test the health of the plants  themselves then this is going to be a great   tool for use in that I know remote sensing and all  those techniques um are you know being implemented
in some areas but uh this is would be a great  uh tool for that and if you are interested in
trying it out um I would encourage you to reach  out to us and uh we’d be happy to help uh you   know run pilot studies or whatever it is that  you want uh to try with your the device with
biculture um the next question is are  extra batteries provided with it and yes
so we do provide two full sets of batteries  so you’ll be able to have one in the device   and one separate the batteries are also pretty  commonly available uh online so if you wanted to
buy additional batteries if you just search the  same model that we send you just go to Google
and search that uh same exact model you could  probably find uh pretty easily some batteries that
are located near you that you could get uh shipped  to you um that would uh work in just the same way
we also provide the battery charger with those  extra batteries so you can always charge your batteries um so the next question is has anyone  ever used the equipment with small leaves that do
not cover the whole aperture for example Conifer  leaves yeah so as I mentioned earlier the the
thing with the conifers and the I guess like uh if  you’re doing grasses or any kind of other really
thin uh width leaves is that you have to use  multiple you have to cover the entire aperture
with multiple leaves so uh that takes away the  individual Leaf aspect of it um but uh that is
unfortunately the reality with this device is that  you need to be able to cover that entire aperture   so um when when you try to take measurements and  you only have uh one portion of that uh Optical
window covered then you’re going to get some  weird uh Spectra because you’re going to have   um a much different I guess uh or artificially  inflated spectrum because light is just 100%
transmitting through on both sides of that Conifer  needle or that blade of grass um and so it’s going
to cause some issues with the detector uh so yeah  so when you’re using it with the small leaves you
are just going to have to take the approach of it  not being an individual Leaf sensor at that point
unfortunately um the next question is hello is  it possible to map a specific tree species in
a large area using its spectral signature  if so how would you go about it so if I’m
understanding correctly you’re trying to  map out the entire spectral signature of
an entire tree if that’s correct then  in that case what you would need to use   is something like hyperspectral Imaging so  even multispectral Imaging probably wouldn’t
cut it in that scenario because you’re only  getting a few different specific wavelengths   of light but with hyperspectral imaging  you’re getting both that full resolution
spectral signature all the way from you know  visible to near infrared as well as the image the
actual 2D image of that tree so um if you wanted  to do that in a 3D way that’s when you’re going
to the most advanced kind of form right now so  right now any kind of 3D imaging stuff is usually
happening in closed uh really expensive you know  containers that have you know very high tech
cameras in them that are giving you a 3D mapped  image of that plant and they can do multispectrum
Imaging as well but getting hyperspectral and 3D  imaging that’s really really on The Cutting Edge
and I don’t know of anyone that’s done anything  like that yet so um uh you know I would have to
look at the technological universities that are  doing the absolute you know most Cutting Edge   research and see whether or not anyone any of them  have done it but otherwise um on a 2d basis you
could get multiple 2D images of hyperspectral  images but um getting a full 3d rendering and
spectral signatures is something that’s still  kind of um not very common if even possible right
now um H the next question is can we get the  recording for the webinar and of course this
webinar is being recorded so it’ll be sent via  email to anyone that registered for the webinar
um so yes this recording will be available um  once we process it later today or tomorrow um
the next question is is there an influence  of the environment when taking measurements   uh so for example Sunny versus cloudy days  or even how you’re were holding the device
so the uh environment has no impact on the actual  measurement itself now so sunny day cloudy day the
things that could impact it is a wet Leaf so if it  rained and you didn’t dry the leaf off uh before
you measured it that external moisture is going to  impact the measurement um if uh as far as holding
the device um yeah I guess the orientation you’re  holding it will impact the device because whether
or not that Optical window is on the bottom of the  leaf or on the top of the leaf will alter um how
that reflectant Spectra is being measured so um  you can measure the bottom of the leaf or the top
of the leaf depending on as far as reflectance  Spectra is concerned transmittance it doesn’t
matter as much uh absorbance uh will also likely  not be very much impacted but the reflectance will
change whether or not your measuring the top  or the bottom of the leaf um and so uh in that
way the way you’re holding the device can impact  that reflectant Spectra actually so great question   thank you for bringing that up um is this device  pre-calibrated to measure Leaf nutrient content
if yes what crops are calibrated so uh it’s a  great question we don’t have any calibrations
on the device for any crops right now what we  have are nutrient indices that aren’t quanti
ative but they are qualitative so we have indices  on there for nitrogen phosphorus and potassium
that will give you a unitless measure that you  can use for comparison against other crops or
other plants uh that are in different treatments  or in different conditions um that will give you
an idea of what those nutrient levels are like  in comparison to one another but they are not
direct quantitation uh indices and so um right  now there are no crops that uh we you can use
this device for to get direct nutrient content  quantitations out of the box that would require
uh on your end to do create the calibration first  and then go out and use the device uh in that
way um so the next question is May I know what  is the preferred condition or timing to use the
Spectra view so concerns of abiotic factors  that affect the readings at different times   so um really like I mentioned it is a closed  environment so you’re not going to have that
much impact from environmental conditions the  biggest things are uh rain so wetness on the   leaves you need to make sure that you uh at  least Pat those leaves dry before you measure
them otherwise that external moisture is going to  cause issues so um uh condensing humidity right
so we said 0 to 90% non-condensing humidity is our  as our operating conditions if you have condensing
humidity and that Optical window keeps getting  moisture on it and and you take measurements   that that’s going to impact your measurements  so typically water is the biggest thing that
is going to interfere with these measurements  um lighting conditions aren’t going to impact   it because this is a closed lighting environment  um and then as far as other operating conditions
you know you can pretty much use it in any weather  conditions you’re going to encounter heatwise um
you know conditions of light are not going to  impact it so um those are the biggest biggest   one is always going to be moisture um time of day  all those other things are something that you as
the researcher are going to have to determine when  you want to collect those measurements because you   need to think about um you know if you’re using  this as a comparison device across different uh
treatments or something like that you want to make  sure that you’re collecting data when everything’s   you know under the same kind of conditions so  when you’re doing your data collection that’s
when you need to think about you know it’s not  so much how it affects the instrument it’s just   collecting data that can actually be used in a  comparative way so don’t collect data from you
know your control plants at night and then the  rest of your experimental groups during the day
that kind of thing so that’s where you need to  consider those the most um Can the next question
is can we uh its use in disease plants for the  effect of pathogen on physiological changes in
plants so I guess I’m kind of confused about  what this question is asking uh this can be
used to model disease to look at changes in plant  health status which would be you know if there is
any kind of pathogen infection um H you are  going to see changes in the biochemical and
physical chemical properties which will impact  um any sort of of the spectral signature any
of the vegetation indices will will change um  especially the more health-based ones like the   nitrogen or the phosphorus pottassium ndvi  greenness indicators um antisin for stress
um so you can use those to actually see those  effects of uh infection pathogenic infection
before you see physical uh actual um visual signs  in the plant so that’s how I would use it in that
case um the next question is after how much time  of fertilizer application the data regarding Leaf
contents or nutrition can be recorded so um this  really depends on what type of fertilizer is being
applied or how it’s being applied um like I  mentioned before any kind of extra moisture
anything anything like that on the leaves is  going to cause problems obviously if you just   applied fertilizer and it’s and it was sprayed or  something like that and it’s on the leaves in any
way um that’s going to alter your Spectra slightly  so you want to give it appropriate time to uh not
be taking scans that that could potentially  have you know direct layers of uh any kind of
fertilizer or anything like that on a leaf um  so even if it’s you know just like a map spray   you know just you know spray going everywhere  or whatever as if you’re taking measurements
that um where there’s still moisture or a  bunch of residue on the leaf then that is
going to impact the measurement so I would  at least wait long enough to be certain that   there is n none of that present um and that you  can Pat that leaf dry without worrying about um
you know removing something that you don’t  want to remove from that leaf um so that’s
what that’s would be my recommendation I  don’t think there’s a set time I could give   you off the top of my head but uh just  making sure you have allowed for that
the next question is any clue on the best protocol  to use in case of collecting ground Truth for   remote sensing that’s a great question um I would  say every scenario is going to be different than
than every other scenario um there’s probably  not going to be a single best protocol the   most important thing is going to be um your  subsampling plan your sampling plan of of how
you’re sampling in order to make sure that you’re  getting a uh as far as the ground through sampl
to make sure you’re getting a robust idea of the  actual uh I guess ground truth of your specific
plots um and so coming up with a a really robust  sampling plan to go out and make sure you’re
collecting enough samples from different plants  uh to get that idea um is going to be the best but
the one thing you’re going to want to take into  consideration is especially for remote sensing
applications when you’re only really getting any  kind of top for the most part top canopy layer
images um then what you’re going to  want to do is when you’re taking your   measurements for the ground truthing you  want to be taking from the same leaves as
what what what would be measured at from your  or most observed from your uh remote sensing
application uh the next question what could be  your advice in using it for spectral profiling
of a specific tree species among many others so  if you’re just trying to do spectral profiling
I mean the biggest thing is going to be like  I just said subsampling and making sure that   you’re sampling enough uh of uh a diverse enough  I guess locations on the tree um and getting as
much samples as you can to make sure you’re  getting a good average idea of what’s going
on throughout the entire tree um and then what you  can do is actually with machine learning a lot of
different machine learning algorithms there’s a  lot of classification algorithms out there right   so what I would do is once you have those data  sets in there I would look into do uh different
kinds of machine learning or Matrix uh algorithms  that allow for classification um and allow you to
basically Identify say this is what the spectral  profile looks for this tree versus what it looks   like for this tree and have that machine learning  model learn about what those different profiles
look like and be able to help you then go out  and identify in the future that’s what I would recommend uh the next question is I need more  details on the indices calculated and their range
okay well that’s a great question if you go  to our website uh and Susie posted the link   to the 710s specifications you can also  go and download our uh index list and so
uh we do have the index list posted and  available and it has um uh our lists of
all the indices what their ranges are um  because there’s 40 plus of them right now   and I don’t know every single one off the top  of my head I couldn’t just rattle them all off
for you now but that’s where I would direct  you to get all that information um or what is
included already on the device and like I said  you can always input your own custom index as
well uh oh the next question is the same can  you provide more information on the pre-loaded
indices again I would recommend uh going to our  website uh so oh there’s a great question could
you tell a bit more about the use of this device  in the Cannabis industry has there been research   published specific for cannabis so I think the  Cannabis industry is still just starting to to
kind of uh get into the spectroscopy stuff  um with this specific spectrometer with the
wavelength range that we have I can tell you  that um depending on what the application is   uh I guess I’m in my mind I IM immediately went  to thinking of like cannaboid profiles um so if
you are hoping that this technology will replace  uh sending in your samples for triple quad lcmsms
uh uh analysis to get your cannabis profiles  then I’m un fortunately going to have to report
that that’s never going to be the case if you are  simply looking for um total cannaboids or just uh
generically THC or CBD then this technology might  be able to actually uh model those pretty well um
the problem with this technology is that when you  get to the super super Trace levels of stuff it   doesn’t do very well and especially when you’re  trying to separate out based on different isomers
or of a of a single compound um it’s not going to  do as well with that so um in that regard that’s
wow you know that’s I see the potential in cannab  cannaboid profiles being only really used as a
kind of overarching cannaboid uh category device  but if you are talking more on just the plant
Health uh side of things and it it literally can  be used just the same way as it it was it is used
in corn or wheat or any other crop essentially  where you’re just using it to to investigate
how your specific treatments or you know your  new soil types your new lighting conditions are
impacting plant Health overall and so I would use  those vegetation indices to help uh provide that
information for you that was a great question um  uh the next question is can we have a print out of
the results directly by attaching with a printer  that’s a great question I don’t know off the top
of my head but it has the Wi-Fi capability  so I’m assuming that we could come up with   a solution if that was something you needed um we  probably could find a way for that to be a reality
to be able to just uh directly transfer the data  to um some sort of API that would run that data
through to your printer um if you have a wireless  printer or printer capable of interacting with Wi-Fi uh can the graphical representation of data  be transferred that’s a really good question so
unfortunately we don’t actually export the actual  physical graph that you can see the spectrograph
on this on the device uh screen there we do uh  basically what we export is the specific values
uh transmittance reflectance absorbance values um  for each of those samples that were taken at each
wavelength range and so in you what You’ have  to do is when that’s exported it’s exported as   a CSV uh so in Excel or some other um spreadsheet  software you would then just have to graph the
Spectra yourself just highlighting those those  rows and graphing them uh individually yourself
um but great question uh the next question is  can I measure thick leaves like cactus that is
a really good question depends how thick the leaf  is because uh light can only n light specifically
can only penetrate so far so um if your Leaf  is thicker than I would say 1 cimeter thick
then I would not recommend um using this device  uh because as far as transmittance spectroscopy
is concerned if if you are only interested in  reflectance then you can use it on any any leaf
or really any plant tissue you want because  you’re only measuring the reflecting of light   off of that surface if you are interested in  absorbance or transmittance then the thicker
the leaf the more difficult it is for the light  to get through because n light is low energy so
um the penetration even though shortwave near  infrared is the most penetrative of all the N
wavelengths um it is still um Limited in how far  can penetrate so depends I guess on exactly what
you’re trying to measure but for reflectance I  would say sure um anything waxy is going to likely
present a little bit of um some interference uh  but other other than that you should be fine to
use it thank you for that question Kendra uh is  there a problem with small leaves overlap when
trying to cover the area with several of them so  the O yes overlapping is that’s a great I’m sorry
I did not I guess guess I qualify my statement  earlier with that but overlapping is going to   cause problems if you’re doing um any sort of  transmittance or absorbance-based readings because
you’re increasing the thickness of that sample and  so you definitely want to try your best to get a
single layer um of of the leaves on that window  and so to the best of your ability you don’t want
to overlap so thank you for bringing that up  I’m I that was a great question um temperature
humidity I think I’ve already covered this but  operating temperatures the specifications are   on the website um or earlier in this slideshow  and uh humidity as long as it’s non-condensing
should not pose an issue if you have condensing  humidity uh and it’s causing moisture to build
up on that Optical window then you’re going to  um have problems and and you’re not going to   be able to use the device uh the next question  is how often should the calibration be done um
as I mentioned in the earlier in the presentation  you want to calibrate every single time you power   cycle the device so every time you it’s off and  you turn it back on you calibrate before you do
anything um the next question I just answered  regarding uh leaves overlapping um the next is
how complex is it to model the spectrum of  a metabolite to determine its contents in a   leaf using Spectra view any suggested procedure so  yeah model building I would say it isn’t the least
complex uh process in the the world but it is also  one that’s very under uh easy to understand um
once you know what goes into building a model and  I would really recommend that you check out our   YouTube and look at our um chemometrics series and  how to build models um because there’s a lot that
goes into planning uh especially on the planning  side before you even start collecting data there’s   a lot that goes into it um but what you’re going  to end up wanting to use is something like you’re
going to want to have someone that has some kind  of data science or programming experience and R or   python um so that you can utilize uh different  uh you know features like neural networks or
machine learning like tensorflow things  like that um and so you’ll need someone   on your team that is capable of of handling um  programming in that way um other than that it’s
really uh just comes down to planning but um  for more information on that process I would   highly recommend checking out that series  and then reaching out to us if you have more
questions uh the next question is can we update  the CI 710s software yes we do provide software
updates for free and in fact we do have  a new software update for current users   of the device so um if you do currently own a  device and you want to update your software then
please reach out to us and we will make  sure we get that updated I put the link   in the chat for the software update awesome  perfect well then that’s where I would go to
check it out and if you own a device already  please update your software this is a great   update that fixes some existing bugs but also  addresses some enhancements to the actual uh
software itself so um would highly recommend  and the last question is thanks for a great
presentation well thank you all for attending I  appreciate you all being here and learning more   about this wonderful technology and the Spectra  viw Leaf spectrometer and I hope that a lot of you
uh are thinking about utilizing this in your  future operations and if you are please feel   free to reach out to us anytime so we can talk  about your application and how this technology
can assist you and your organizations so thank  you all so much and I hope you have a great day

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